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Business - Print. Agassi , Robert S. Cohen Hardcover December 31, Prices and offers may vary in store. This volume is dedicated to Mario Bunge in honor of his sixtieth birthday.
Philosophy in Crisis: The Need for Reconstruction. Book Review Essay
Mario Bunge is a philosopher of great repute, whose enormous output includes dozens of books in several languages, which will culminate with his Treatise on Basic Philosophy projected in seven volumes, four of which have already appeared [Reidel, I ff. He is known for his works on research methods, the foundations of physics, biology, the social sciences, the diverse applications of mathematical methods and of systems analysis, and more.
Bunge stands for exact philosophy, classical liberal social philosophy, rationalism and enlightenment. He is brave, even relentless, in his attacks on subjectivism, mentalism, and spiritualism, as well as on positivism, mechanism, and dialectics.
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To facilitate its use as a textbook, the present volume has been divided into two parts. Part I is devoted to the philosophy of the formal and physical sciences, whereas Part II covers the philosophy of the biological and social sciences as well as of the technologies. Formal science: from logic to mathematics 9; 1. Generalities 9; 2. Mathematics and reality 26; 3.
Logic 40; 4. Pure and applied mathematics 75; 5. Foundations and philosophy 95; 6. Concluding remarks ; II. Physical science: from physics to earth science ; 1. Preliminaries ; 2. Two classics ; 3. Two relativities ; 4. Quantons ; 5. Chance ; 6. Realism and classicism ; 7. Chemistry ; 8. Megaphysics ; 9. Concluding remarks ; Bibliography ; Index of names ; index of subjects It is also about axiology the study of value systems , ethics the study of moral codes , and action theory.
It is concerned with both private and public values, morals, and actions. In particular, it seeks to uncover the roots and functions biological and social of valuation and morality.
grupoavigase.com/includes/255/5025-mujeres-solteras-en.php As well, it attempts to sketch a value system, a moral code and a general plan of action that may help us tackle the dreadful problems of our time. This revival is particularly welcome at a time when philosophy as a whole is at a low ebb — so much so that some philosophers have proclaimed its death while others have taken leave of reason. But the current flourishing of ethics may be an indicator of the general crisis of modern civilization, for people do not usually reflect on problems about values and morals until they they face them, and nowadays most of us face them daily by the dozen.
This is the last volume of my Treatise on Basic Philosophy, on which I started to work two decades ago. It is consistent with the previous volumes, in particular with the naturalistic, dynamicist, emergentist and systemist ontology, as well as with the realistic and ratioempiricist semantics and epistemology formulated therein.
However, the present book may be read independently of its companions. Values 11; 1. Roots of values 11; 2. Welfare 41; 3. Value theory 61; Part II. Morals 93; 4.
Roots of morals 93; 5. Morality changes ; 6. Some moral issues ; Part III. Ethics ; 7. Types of ethical theory ; 8. Ethics et alia ; 9.
Metaethics ; Part IV: Action theory ; Action ; Social philosophy ; Values and morals for a viable future ; Bibliography ; Index of names ; Index of subjects From the preface: "This book has been written for social scientists curious about philosophy, as well as for philosophers interested in social studies. As suggested by its title, it focuses on the philosophy involved in social studies — albeit, usually in a tacit manner. I will argue that all social studies, whether scientific or literary, are crammed with philosophical concepts, such as those of fact, system, process, theory, test, and truth.
They also contain or presuppose some philosophical assumptions, such as that societies are or are not mere aggregates of individuals, that people can or cannot choose and act rationally, and that social facts can or cannot be studied scientifically. Regrettably, most students of society rarely pause to examine the philosophical ideas they adopt. When they do, they often fall under the influence of philosophies that do not match the practice of contemporary social science research.
Most of the philosophers who have paid attention to the philosophy in or about social science have held some or all of the following three theses: that there is a clear divide between the social and the natural sciences, there being no mixed or socio-natural sciences; that science and philosophy are mutually disjoint, so cannot learn from one another; that the philosophy of social science is the same as that of the natural sciences — or else that the two are utterly disjoint.
I will argue that all three, and many more received opinions, are false. I will examine some of the key philosophical ideas inherent in the social and socio-natural sciences, as well as some of the topical philosophical problems raised by them. Thus I will elucidate the ontological notions of event and causation, the semantic concepts of meaning and truth, the epistemological ideas of hypothesis and indicator, the axiological notions of value and utility, and the ethical concepts of right and duty, I will also wrestle with such classical controversies as individualism versus holism, rationalism versus empiricism, explanation versus understanding, and nomothetic versus idiographic science.
Hence it is concerned with questions such as: Are there social systems, or only aggregates of individuals? Are cultures systems of values and norms, or concrete social systems? What is a micro-macro link? What are the engines of history: the environment, biological factors, the economy, politics, culture, or all of these? Are there occasionally leaps in social evolution, or was Marshall right in inscribing the maxim Natura non facit saltum on the title page of his classic Principles of Economics? Is society a text to be deciphered by hermeneutics or semiotics?
Is human history analogous to biological evolution? Problems of scientific philosophy. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall It seems clear that two kinds of objects can be ordered in respect of complexity or simplicity : namely, material and cultural objects things, events, processes and their properties, on the one hand, and ideal objects such as concepts, propositions, and theories and their properties, on the other. Or, stated simply and rather inaccurately, two kinds of object can be simple: things and signs.
We shall speak accordingly of ontological simplicity and of semiotic simplicity. Ontological simplicity has been postulated-and challenged -from the most ancient times. Semiotic simplicity has been sought-and sometimes purposefully avoided-of old as well, by poets and scientists alike, although the theory of the simplicity of signs is still in its infancy.
That nature and man are "basically" simple, is an ancient ontological tenet-more precisely, a heuristically valuable prejudice-that can be adequately examined on the basis of science alone, since we judge the simplicity or the complexity of reality through the simplicity of the scientific knowledge of it. Consequently, before approaching ontological simplicity we should examine the simplicity of signs, a semiotic problem that has only recently been faced in a scientific spirit. Four dimensions of semiotic simplicity will be studied in this chapter and in the following: syntactical or logical simplicity, or economy of forms; semantical simplicity, or economy of presuppositions; epistemological simplicity, or economy of transcendent terms; and pragmatic simplicity, or economy of work.
Logical or formal simplicity will be attacked in this chapter. Now, there are basically four types of sign in the field of discourse: terms, propositions, proposals, and theories. Hence, we must successively study the simplicity of terms designating concepts , sentences expressing propositions and proposals , and theories systems of propositions. In turn, since propositions and proposals are built out of predicates like 'between' , names of extralogical constants like 'Argentina' and variables such as 'x' , logical constants e.
Now, if we assume that one and the same system of logic underlies all language systems occurring in rational discourse — which is true as a first approximation — we may leave out of account the complexity of logical signs, which constitute a constant background common to nearly all meaningful discourses. The logical complexity of extralogical predicates will accordingly be studied in the first place.
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