The Ovary, Second Edition


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The ovaries and reproductive system

Obstetrics and Gynaecology in Chinese Medicine is a complete and detailed textbook of this speciality in Chinese medicine with the diagnosis and treatment with acupuncture and Chinese herbs. The author bases his exposition on modern and ancient Chinese books, always integrated with his long clinical experience. Many new approaches are discussed throughout the book, for example the simultaneous deficiency of both Kidney-Yin and Kidney-Yang in women, the peculiar aetiological factors applying to women, and the effect of sexual activity in gynaecological complaints.

The book deals with the diagnosis and treatment of women's gynaecological and obstetric disorders including endometriosis and polycystic ovary syndrome.

Second Edition

This volume is simultaneously an encounter with the classics of Chinese medicine, this morning's patient and the insights of a seasoned practitioner. It is a wonderful example of balancing old and new in order to fulfill the mandate of "accurate" transmission.

Classical citations are balanced with contemporary case histories to provoke understanding and clinical guidance while eschewing mere pedantry. With ovulation , that fluid-filled cyst bursts open. The fluid, egg and sometimes some blood are spilled into the abdomen.

Ovarian Cancer Stages

That can give a one-sided sharp pelvic pain called "Mittelschmertz" in German, meaning "middle-pain" because it usually occurs about the middle of the menstrual cycle. However, every month from the time we are babies, some dozen or more follicle s start to grow. Some of these even develop enough to form cyst s, but usually only one or none matures enough to ovulate.

These smaller follicle s with their lakes of fluid are called follicle cyst s.

These cyst s are commonly the size of a pea. They are gradually absorbed by the ovary and disappear.

These follicle cyst s are common, perfectly normal, and occur in our ovaries long before we have our first period, when we are pregnant or on The Pill , and even occasionally after menopause. As we mature before our first period, our ovaries become stimulated and get larger, cyst s are common, and occasionally cyst s grow large enough to cause the ovary to twist and lose its blood supply 1.

These follicular cyst s are normal, don't need surgery and should be easy to see on pelvic or vagina l ultrasound as thin-walled fluid-filled circles around outer edge of the ovary.

How is the stage determined?

Other follicle s grow, make lots of estrogen and may develop into cyst s that can become as large as a soft ball. These large follicle s would have ovulated except for some imbalance in the complex system that stimulates ovulation.

These cyst s may remain in the ovary longer than follicular cyst s, continue to grow, and occasionally cause discomfort by pressing on the bowels or bladder. These are anovulatory cyst s and arise because of not ovulating.


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These large cyst s are also fairly common, eventually are absorbed by the ovary and don't need surgery. In some women, however, the hypothalamus and the pituitary have stimulated the ovary's outer coat to get thicker than its normal few cell layers. This outer coat, called theca externa , makes estrogen and androgen s hormones such as testosterone that are normally high in men. The higher local and whole body levels of estrogen and testosterone interfere with ovulation.

Thus anovulation not ovulating becomes chronic and often the ovary is ringed with multiple larger and thicker walled cyst s. These cyst s can make both estrogen s and androgen s-they are called "functional cyst s. Either name means that for inherited and other reasons your body is not ovulating regularly, and is making too much estrogen and too much androgen -these changes cause far apart periods, unwanted male pattern hair and are also associated with weight gain especially around the waist, with an increased risk for diabetes.

Occasionally following ovulation a cyst will form. After release of the egg, the part of the follicle left in the ovary, called the corpus luteum , that is now making progesterone as well as estrogen , may close off and fill with fluid. That is called a corpus luteum cyst.


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  • It is also not a worry because it is perfectly normal. The corpus luteum cyst should look different on ultrasound than other cyst s. Now to answer your second question-what to do? I suspect that you were not ovulating which caused your heavier flow and increased cramps.

    Ovary - Wikipedia

    You may have a large cyst because of that. If it is a functional or follicular cyst it will be absorbed over several months. From what you said, that large cyst is not causing any discomfort and is unlikely to be pressing on the bladder, bowel or ureter-therefore it does not need surgery. To reassure yourself and your doctor, I'd suggest a repeat ultrasound in three months. However, and this is important-you need to make sure your ultrasound report shows nothing suspicious of cancer like a solid bit or some non-liquid stuff inside the cyst.

    Note, also, that the ultrasound can't reliably tell the difference between ovarian cancer and rare but non-cancerous causes of cyst s cyst s that grow teeth and hair called dermoids, or cyst s filled with gummy stuff called cyst adenomas.

    Epidermoid Cyst of the Ovary

    Because ovarian cancer is a very serious problem and hard to detect early 2 , these suspicious-looking cyst s need to be removed immediately. I want to reassure you about ovarian cancer. Ovarian cancer is rare-only about 0.

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    The Ovary, Second Edition The Ovary, Second Edition
    The Ovary, Second Edition The Ovary, Second Edition
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